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Full text of "Resource Management Report September 1, 1964"

a** 



No. 77 September, 1964 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are (or Intra-Departmenta! Information 
and Not for Publication) 



No. 77 September, 1964 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Fish & Wildlife Branch 

Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemansep1964onta 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 77 September, 1964 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA -DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Page 



Mortality of Hatchery Brook Trout Attributed to 
Vorticella globular is. 

- by Paul Graf 1 

The French River Creel Census 1963, with a 
Summary of the Years 1961=1963. 

- by E. Espaniel, J. Sheppard 4 
and D. I. Gillespie. 

Grouse Hunting in Parry Sound District, 1963. 

- by C. A. Ret tie 16 

The Deer Situation Along the North Shore of 
Lake Huron and Georgian Bay. 

- by D. Gillespie 26 

Suggestions for Wildlife Habitat Improvement. 

- by R. E. Mason 33 



- 1 - 
MORTALITY OF HATCHERY BROOK TROUT ATTRIBUTED TO 

VQRTICELIA GLOBULARIS 

by 

Paul Graf 
Assistant Hatchery Manager, Hill's Lake Hatchery 



Abstract 

An increase in mortality of finger ling brook trout 
was encountered at Hill's Lake Hatchery during the 
early summer of 1958. Examination of these fish 
disclosed an unusually high incidence of Vorticella 
globularis . Treatment of the fish to control this 
organism resulted in the recovery of the fish. 



Introduction 

Routine examinations of fish losses at Hill's Lake 
Hatchery are continually made to facilitate control of pathological 
organisms. The protozoan Vorticella sp. was frequently observed, 
but according to available literature, was not considered to be 
harmful. On several occasions large numbers of Vorticella were 
found on brook trout and these instances were accompanied by high 
mortality. 

They were first discovered in the early summer of 1958. 
These organisms were seen attached to the fins, gills and body 
of brook trout. Only fingerlings and poor quality yearlings heavily 
infested with Vorticella displayed symptoms, and no known pathogens 
were found. 

A pathologist. Dr. A. Dechtiarenko, from Maple, visited 
the hatchery in November, 1960, and confirmed the identification of 
the organism as the protozoan Vorticella globularis . 

Treatment which removed the organisms also brought about 
the recovery of the fish. 

Description of Vorticella 

Vorticella is a bell-shaped organism with a relatively 
long contractile stalk (Fig. 1). The open end of the bell has a 
thickened edge (peristome) with a fringe of cilia, characteristic of 
the Class Ciliata to which Vorti cella belongs. The only readily 
seen internal structures are the crescent- shaped macronucleus and 
food vacuoles. 



. ■ 



„ 2 - 

Vorticella is an ec to- commensal normally found attached 
to algae, but also to Cyclops and other Crustacea. This is the 
first record of this occurrence on fish. The protozoan feeds on 
bacteria carried to the mouth by water currents caused by ciliary 
action. 

It is not known precisely how mortality is caused by 
Vorticella . However, it is possible that their presence in large 
numbers on the gill filaments in some way interferes with gas 
exchange . 

Symptoms 

Pathological conditions occurred only in fingerlings and 
small yearling brook trout. Several symptoms were apparent. The 
fish had a tendency to rub themselves against the side and bottom 
of the hatchery trough. They also were seen breaking the surface 
of the water with their dorsal fins. The skin turned cloudy and 
appeared slightly lighter in colour than in healthy fish. 

The only positive way of diagnosis is by microscopic 
examination. 

Treatment 

After Vorticella were observed on the fish, the problem 
of control was undertaken. Since the protozoan was not a known 
fish pathogen, no methods of control were prescribed in the 
literature. 

I experimented with formaldehyde, lysal dip, acetic acid 
dip, and Pyridyl mercuric acetate (P.M. A.). All treatments were 
tried on selected grcups of infected fish and showed varying 
degrees of success. Formaldehyde showed the best results. 

1. Formaldehyde 1 : 4,000 for one hour. 

2. P.M. A. 1 : 200,000 for one hour. 

I recommend that Formaldehyde should not be used for 
treatment if swelling of the gill filaments is observed. 

Co nclusions 

From observations made at Hill's Lake Hatchery, it appears 
that Vorticella may become a pathogen in young brook trout. The 
damage caused by these organisms is relatively minor and mortality 
can be limited by prompt diagnosis and treatment. It appears that 
contrary to current literature, Vorticella globularis can be harmful 
to fish. 



, 






References 

Buchbaum, Rolph - 1951. Animals Without Backbones, an Introduction 
to the Invertebrates. Penguin Books, Vol. 1, 204 pp. 




Vorticella e;lobularis 



- 4 - 

THE FRENCH RIVER CREEL CENSUS 1963 
WITH A SUMMARY OF THE YEARS 1961-1963 

by 
R. Espaniel, J. Sheppard and D. I. Gillespie 



Abstract 

A creel census on the French River was carried out 
for the third consecutive year in 1963. Smallmouth 
bass predominated the catch closely followed by walleye. 
Pike and perch comprised less than 15 per cent of 
the catch. During the 127 day census period 1775 
anglers caught 8331 fish. The season 1 s fishing success 
was 91.4 fish per 100 rod-hours and the average harvest 
per fisherman for the season was 4.7 fish. Results of 
the 1963 census and those of 1961 and 1962 are compared. 



Introduction 

A creel census has been carried out on the French River 
since the summer of 1961. Basically, the data collected have been 
comparable in content, fish caught by species, number of anglers and 
total fishing effort, but each year there has been a consideration 
of particular aspects of the fishery. In 1961, the initial year of 
the census, we considered a description of the waters, a comparison 
of the quality of angling in the French with other waters in the 
Sudbury District, and a description of the quality of fishing in 
two lakes adjacent to the river (Sheppard, 1962). In 1962 with 
more detailed data available, a comparison of guided and unguided 
resident and non-resident fishermen was made, the description of 
the quality of fishing in adjacent lakes was expanded, the data 
were considered to evaluate competition between anglers in the same 
boat and walleye year class strength was commented upon (Espaniel, 
1963). 

This year, 1963, the information has been collected to 
allow an analysis of the utilisation of the fish caught viz. fish 
caught, fish eaten and fish kept. We have also brought together the 
data of all three years as a final comparison of the fishery. 

Methods Used 

The methods used in collecting the data were the same as 
those described by Sheppard (op. cit.) and used by Espaniel (op. cit.) 



- 5 - 

1963 Data 

Records were kept on the four main species of fish caught 
in the French River -- walleye ( Stizostedion vitreum ) smallmouth 
bass ( Micropterus dolomieui ) northern pike ( Esox lucius ) and yellow 
perch (Perca flavescens ). The latter species plays a relatively 
insignificant role in the catch of this census. The walleye made 
up 42.6 per cent of the catch (3545 fish), the bass 44.7 per cent 
(3722 fish), the pike 12,1 per cent (1006 fish) and the perch .7 
per cent (58 fish). Fewer walleye were taken in 1963 compared to 
the other years, more bass and fewer pike. 

The four species totalled 8331 fish during the 127 day 
census period. These fish were caught by 1775 anglers who 
averaged 5.1 hours fishing or a total of 9113 angling hours. The 
season's fishing success was 91.4 fish per hundred rod-hours and 
the average harvest per fisherman for the season was 4.7 fish. Dur- 
ing a period of apparent increased availability of bass (in early 
August) the catch per unit effort rose to 127.7 fish per 100 
rod-hours c The season's low was recorded in early October (54.6 
fish per hundred rod-hours). 

Records were kept on the utilization of the catch. 
Table 1 provides a temporal consideration of this information. 
The data beside the heading "caught" go without need of explana- 
tion. The "eaten" data represent fish eaten as shore lunches and 
the "kept" data represent fish taken back to the lodge to be eaten 
or packed for shipment to the angler's home. 

Table 11 provides the season totals expressed as percent- 
ages. Forty- two per cent of all the fish caught were consumed, 
providing a C.U.E. of 38.4 fish, considered suitable for consump- 
tion, per hundred rod-hours. While walleye and bass were relatively 
comparable in total numbers caught, the consumption of the former 
was almost double the consumption of the latter. The pike consumed 
were generally of trophy size compared to those released and 
angling for this species was primarily for the sport involved in 
landing the fish. 

A temporal consideration of the angling success and 
effort is presented in Table 111. The catch success increases from 
the late spring to a peak in mid- summer then tails off to a low in 
early fall. In 1962, although the catch success was generally higher 
throughout the season, a similar trend is to be noted, but the 
peak period is about two weeks ahead of the 1963 peak. 



; <" 



. ■ 



- 6 - 
A Comparison of the Data Collected in 1961, 1962, 1963 

The duration of the census period has varied somewhat 
during the three years that we have worked on the French 31 ver. 
In 1961 the work was carried out between July 17 and October 2 
for 52 census days, between May 12 and October 6 for 144 census 
days in 1962, and between June 3 and October 13 for 127 census 
days in 1963. During these three years there has been a decline in 
the C.U.E. from the high of 122.6 in 1961 to the low of 91.4 in 
1963. Likewise there has been a decline in the angler take from 
5.7 fish in 1961 to 4.7 in 1963. Table IV provides that three 
year comparison of catch, effort, C.U.E. and catch per angler. 

It is interesting to compare the species composition of 
the creels for the three year period. Tables V and Va have been 
constructed to provide this information in number and per cent 
form. During the first two years the per cent composition of 
walleye and bass in the creel remained relatively constant at about 
47 and 37 per cent, respectively. In 1963, however, it appears 
that there was a considerable drop in the walleye portion of the 
creel and a correspondingly large increase in the bass creel. 

However, if from the 1962 and 1963 data, comparable periods 
June 1 to September 30 are examined it will be seen that the change 
is due primarily to a drop in the walleye harvest. Tables VI and 
Via have been constructed to show this. The angling pressures and 
efforts for these two intervals are remarkably similar. Only 22 
more anglers were interviewed in 1962 and only 56 more hours of 
effort reported. If only walleye and bass are considered as the 
years' catch, it will be seen that in 1962 the harvest was 52.8 
per cent walleye and 47.2 per cent bass while in 1963 the percentage 
harvest is reversed (47.2% walleye and 52.8% bass). If it is 
assumed that equal time is spent angling for walleye and for bass 
then from Table Via it will be seen that the C.U.E. for bass has 
remained relatively constant while the walleye C.U.E. has dropped 
about 20 per cent. 

Summary 

1. The French River creel census was carried out for the 
third consecutive year in 1963. 

2. Bass predominated the catch in 1963 closely followed by 
walleye. Pike and perch made up less than 15 per cent of the 
catch. 

3. The 1963 angling success was 91.4 fish per hundred 
rod-hours and the average harvest was 4.7 fish per angler. 



- 7 - 

4. Records were kept on the use made of the fish caught. 
42 per cent of the fish caught were consumed (the balance 58 per 
cent were returned to the water.) That portion of the catch 

which was kept, provided a C.U.E. of 38.4 fish per hundred rod-hours 

5. Angler preference was apparent in the eaten and kept data. 
About twice as many walleye were eaten or kept for later consumption 
than were bass. 

6. A seasonal trend in the C.U.E. for 1963 was seen to be 
similar to that of 1962 with the peak availability about two weeks 

ahead of 1962, 

7. During the three years that the French River creel 
census has been in effect the census period has varied in time 
from July 17 to October 2 to May 12 to October 6 and in length 
from 52 days to 144 days. 

8. The C.U.E. for the three years has been 1961 --- 122.6 
fish per hundred rod-hours, 1962 --- 105.4 fish per hundred rod- 
hours and 1963 91.4 fish per hundred rod-hours. Similarly 

the catch per angler has shown a downward trend of 5.7 to 5.4 to 
4.7 fish per angler. 

9. When comparable census periods of June 1 to September 
30 for 1962, and 1963 are used the per cent composition of the 
two major species walleye and bass are seen in a better light. 
Tables V and Va suggest that the walleye catch has dropped while 
the bass catch has increased. This is only half so -- Tables VI 
and Via indicate that the former species has declined but the 
latter has remained relatively constant. 

Discussion 

Since 1S60 the creel census has been one of this 
District's most important tools of inventory and public relations. 
About thirty different waters have been assessed qualitatively in 
the four years of this program. The results of these projects 
have served to set standards of quality for fishing in this 
District and have enabled us to answer some of the questions 
raised by interested sportsmen. 

While answering some of the sportsmen's questions this 
work has created problems we have yet to solve. One of the 
questions we ask ourselves is when should we terminate the census 
for a given water? -- after two years? three years? five? 
— never? Another is what sort of information should we collect 
and how deep should we go in analysing the data collected? The 



question raised by some is: Why bother collecting information if 
you cannot do anything to alter the conditions that Nature has 
created and man, inadvertently, unconsciously., or recklessly has 
altered? Censuses have been termed the statisticians delight and 
the sorrow of practical men. 

We have tried to maintain an affirmative attitude in 
our census work in the hopes that the information we have collected 
may ultimately serve to provide the means for assuring the "best 
possible for the most." However with an increase in projects 
throughout the District, it has become necessary to alter our 
program from time to time based on the existing pressures and needs. 
With all this in mind we have decided to terminate the French River 
creel census in 1963 with the hopes that in the near future we will 
again be able to sample the anglers' catch. 

The French .River work has provided us with many interest- 
ing facts and fancies. With the exception of the North Channel 
and Georgian Bay waters it is probably Sudbury District's most 
heavily utilized fishery. On the basis of our creel census and 
other information collected over the past four years we estimate 
that the French River between mid-May and mid-October, in a normal 
year, supports a fishery of 400,000 angler-days (a conservative 
estimate) and produces about 1,500,000 fish of six species. The 
walleye and the smallmouth bass are the major species taken in the 
French with the northern pike being a distant third. Fluctuations 
in water levels during the spawning season and to some degree dur- 
ing the angling season appear to be of some considerable importance 
in determining the quality and quantity of the fishery. Year class 
strength of walleye and northern pike seems to be most seriously 
affected by spring water fluctuations. Twenty- four hour fluctua- 
tions of six inches in the river's level are normal and twelve 
inch changes are not uncommon. Spawning fish are frequently 
trapped during the more sudden drops and spawn (particularly pike) 
are periodically left to rot after receding waters. Many sportsmen 
seem to be creatures of habit and persist in fishing in the same 
"hole" where they had good fishing last month despite the fact the 
river has dropped three feet. Consequently their catch success 
drops. 

Hughs on and Sheppard (1962) while carrying on their 
Scuba investigations record a vertical movement of walleye in the 
French River which we feel is associated with the thermal conditions 
of the river and therefore the water level. They also point out 
that, at certain times of the year, when they located a school of 
walleye and advised anglers of their presence there was little 
response of the walleye to the bait provided by the fishermen 
suggesting perhaps physiological changes in the fish with 
temperature changes. 



1 



- 9 - 



The 1962 data showed rather conclusively that a knowledge 
of the river and perhaps of the fish behaviour significantly 
increases the harvest. A difference of almost 50 fish per hundred 
rod-hours was noted between guided fishermen and fishermen who did 
not employ guides. Similarly we have found that many resident 
anglers and visiting anglers familiar with the river have exper- 
ienced a far greater degree of success than the casual visitors. 

There appears to be a difference in the selectivity of 
residents and non-residents. The latter group shows little 
preference between walleye and bass whereas residents take about 
two walleye for every bass. The non-resident catch per unit effort 
also exceeds the resident harvest by about 15 fish per hundred 
rod-hours. 

The three years of data suggest, there is a seasonal 
trend in the C.U.E. From the commencement of fishing in the spring 
the success increases to a peak somewhere about late July to early 
August and then declines to the close of the fall fishery. Very 
little winter fishing is carried out on the French River. During 
the three years of the census there appears to have been a decline 
in the C.U.E. and the harvest per angler. Species composition 
remained relatively stable during the first two years of the 
census but changed in 1963. The walleye portion of the creel 
dropped considerably in 1963 and perhaps contributed most to the 
reduction in the C.U.E. 

Records kept on the disposition of the fish caught 
indicate that about 40 per cent of the fish are kept to be 
eaten or taken back to the camp for shipping. This produces a 
C.U.E. of desirable fish of about 38 fish per hundred rod-hours. 
There is also a preference for the species of fish eaten or kept 
by the angler. Almost twice as many walleye were retained for 
consumption compared to bass. Relatively few pike were eaten and 
fewer were taken back to camp. 

The French River provides about 25 spawning locations, 
above Recollect Falls, for walleye and numerous sites for pike 
and bass. Natural barriers along the river's course precludes 
the probability that Georgian 3ay fish serve as the basis for 
the French River fishery. The major problem with the French 
River appears to be in stabalizing the river levels and thereby 
preventing the large primary losses of spawn that have been witnessed 
in the past. An effort has been made to co-ordinate the operation 
of the Lake Nipissing dam with the spawning seasons of the French 
River . 



Acknowledgments 

We would like to acknowledge with thanks, the assistance 
provided us by Mr. C. Shortts and the guides of Lift the Latch 
Lodge . 

References 

Espaniel, R. 1963. French River Angling 1962. Unpublished District 
Report, inimeo. 13 pp. 

Hughson, D. R. and R. M. Sheppard IS 62. Some Observations on Fish 
Behaviour and the Environmental Relationships of Fish 
in Selected Sudbury D: strict Lakes by the Use of Self- 
contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. Resource Mgt. 
Rept. No. 64, July. pp. 43-53. 

Sheppard, J. M. 1962. French River Angling, 1961. Resource 
Management Report No. 66, pp. 46-56. 






11 



TABLE 1: RELATIVE UTILIZATION CF FISH CAUGHT 

BY ANGLING PERIODS IN THE FRENCH RIVER 


1963 




Angling 
Period 




Walleye 


Bass 


Pike 


Perch 


Total 


June 1-15 


Caught 
Eaten 

Kept 


104 
51 
15 




78 
12 
17 


1 


183 

63 
36 


16-30 


C 
E 
K 


480 

281 
55 


55 

S 
7 


130 
19 
10 


4 


669 

309 

72 


July 1-15 


C 
E 
K 


463 

201 

82 


313 
96 
36 


222 
14 
10 


22 


1025 
311 
128 


16-31 


C 
E 
K 


628 

256 

57 


606 

116 

50 


191 
12 
12 




1425 
384 
119 


Aug. 1-15 


r 

E 
K 


411 

166 

72 


1177 
203 

130 


80 
12 
10 


6 
2 


1674 
383 
212 


16-31 


C 
E 
K 


295 

143 

33 


674 

126 
57 


105 
17 
12 


2 


1076 
286 
102 


Sept. 1-15 


C 
E 
K 


251 

160 

22 


551 

122 

41 


88 

6 
2 


12 


942 

288 

65 


16-30 


C 
E 
K 


586 
261 
127 


264 
77 
24 


102 
2 


11 


963 
340 

151 


Oct. 1-14 


C 
E 
K 


287 

125 

99 


77 

IS 
5 


10 

3 

1 




374 
147 
105 


TOTAL 


C 
E 
K 


3545 

1644 

566 


3722 

768 
350 


1006 
97 

74 


58 
2 


8331 

2511 

990 



12 



TABLE II: PER GENT UTILIZATION CF FRENCH RIVER FISK 1963 




Walleye 


Bass 


Pike 


Perch 


Total 


Eaten 
Kept 
TOTAL CONSUMPTION 


46.4% 
16.0% 
62.4% 


20.6 
9.4 

30.0 


9.6 

7.4 

17.0 


3.4 

3.4 


30.1 
11.9 
42.0 



13 - 



TABLE III: 


A TEMPORAL CONSIDERATION OF ANGLING 
FRENCH RIVER 1963. 


DATA 


Angling 
Period 


Total 
Fish 


Anglers 


Hours 


Effort 


Fish/100 rod-hrs. 


June 1-15 


183 


38 


194 


5.1 


94.3 


16-30 


669 


170 


904 


5,3 


74.0 


July 1-15 


1025 


231 


1240 


5.4 


82.7 


16-31 


1425 


249 


1357 


5,4 


105.0 


Aug. 1-15 


1674 


247 


1311 


5.3 


127.7 


16-31 


1076 


223 


1152 


5.2 


93.4 


Sept, 1-15 


942 


192 


527 


4.8 


101.6 


16-30 


963 


287 


1343 


4.7 


71.7 


Oct. 1-14 


374 


138 


605 


5.0 


54.6 


TOTAL 


8331 


1775 


9113 


5.1 


91.4 



TABLE IV: COMPARATIVE ANGLING DATA FRENCH RIVER 
1961, 1962, 1963. 


Year 


Total 
Fish 


Anglers 


Hours 


Fish/100 Rod-Hrs. 


Fish /Angler 


1961 
1962 
1963 


4944 

10022 

8331 


867 

1857 
1775 


4032 
9512 
9113 


122.6 

105.4 

91.4 


5.7 
5.4 
4.7 


TOTALS 

or 
AVERAGES 


23297 


4496 


22657 


102.8 


5.2 



14 - 



TABLE V: 


COMPARATIVE CATCH DATA 


FRENCH RIVER 






1961, 1962 9 1963. 








Year 


Walleye 


Bass 


Pike 


Perch 


Total Fish 


1961 


2318 


1840 


556 


230 


4944 


1962 


4801 


3648 


1491 


82 


10022 


1963 


3545 


3722 


1006 


58 


8331 


TOTALS 


10664 


9210 


3053 


370 


23297 


1961 


52 Day Census Period 








1962 144 Day Census Period 








1963 127 Day Census Period 









TABLE Va: PER CENT CATCH DISTRIBUTION, FRENCH RIVER 

1961, 1962, 1963. 


Year 


Walleye 


Bass 


Pike 


Perch 


Total Fish 


1961 
1962 
1963 


46.9% 
47.9% 

42.6% 


37,2% 
36.4% 
44.7% 


11.2% 
14.9% 
12.1% 


4.7% 
.8% 
.7% 


21.2% 
43.0% 
35.8% 


TOTALS 


45,6% 


39.5% 


13.1% 


1.6% 





15 - 



TABLE VI: A COMPARISON OF BASS AND WALLEYE ANGLING 
FRENCH RIVER, 1962, 1963, for Comparative 
Angling Periods, June 1 - Sept. 30. 




Walleye 


Bass 


Pike 


Anglers 


Hours 


1962 
1963 


4122 
3258 


3680 
3645 


1346 
996 


1659 
1637 


8484 
8428 



TABLE Via: A PER CENT COMPARISON OF BASS & WALLEYE ANGLING 
FRENCH RIVER, 1962, 1963 for Comparative Angling 
Periods, June 1 - Sept. 30. 




Walleye/100 rod-hrs. 


Bass/100 rod-hrs. 


Wall/lOOansl. 


Bass/ 
lOOAng 


1962 
1963 


48.6 

38.7 


43.4 

43.3 


248.5 

199.0 


221.8 
222.7 



- 16 - 
GROUSE HUNTING IN PARRY SOUND DISTRICT 

1963 

by 

C. A. Rettie 
Assistant Senior Cons en/at ion Officer 

Abstract 

Game bag census data collected during the 1963 grouse 
season (September 21 - December 14) showed only 
slight improvement in hunter success over the previous 
year with a kill of 39.3 grouse per 100 hours spent 
in the field on foot. Hunters cruising the roads in 
automobiles and then stalking on foot, birds sighted 
from the car accounted 'for 3.9 birds per 100 miles of 
driving or 25.9 birds per 100 hours time, which is 
less than the previous year. A total of 444 specimens 
of wings and/or tails of ruffed grouse showed the 
ratio of adult females to juveniles to be 100:392. 
Forty-nine birds were examined internally for positive 
sexing. Twenty- three male birds thus examined had 
an average central tail feather length of 6-9/16 inches 
and twenty- three female birds had an average central 
tail feather length of 5-6/16 inches. The three 
remaining internally sexed birds had tail feathers 
still in the blood quill stage and were therefore 
not included in this sample. 



General 

Conservation Officers on routine patrols and many 
individual co-operators submitted data on 294 hunting trips involv- 
ing 489 man-hours of hunting on foot and 525 man-hours (3452 miles 
driven) of road hunting, plus 444 wings and /or tails for sex and 
age determinations. 

From this information the following tables have been 
prepared for comparison with the records of previous grouse hunts. 



TABLE I 



- 17 



GROUSE HUNTING 1963 



Hunting o n Foot 





# 
Reports 


# 
Eunters 


Man- 
Hours 


Birds Flushed 


Birds Shot 


Total 


/100 

Man-Hrs. 


Total 


/100 
Man-Hrs. 


Sept. 
21-30 


29 


41 


122.5 


103 


84.1 


35 


31.8 


Oct. 
1-31 


78 


129 


302.0 


336 


111.3 


130 


43.0 


Nov. 
1-30 


19 


20 


27.5 


32 


116.4 


16 


5o . 2 


Dec. 
1-14 


8 


15 


37.0 


20 


54.1 


7 


18.9 


Total 


134 


205 


489.0 


491 


100.4 


192 


3?. 3 



TABLE II 



Hunting from A utomobile 





# 
Reports 


# 
Hunters 


Miles 
Driven 


Man- 
Hours 


Birds Flusl 


led 


Birds Shot 


Total 


/100 

Mile 


/100 

Man-Hr. 


Total 


/100 

Mile 


/100 

Man- 
Hrs. 


Sept. 
21-30 


36 


60 


907 


138.0 


50 


9.9 


65.2 


20 


2.2 


14.5 


Oct. 
1-31 


108 


198 


2410 


376.0 


2:6 


12.3 


32.7 


114 


4.7 


30.3 


Nov. 
1-30 


12 


13 


109 


8.5 


1 


0.9 


11.8 


1 


• - 


11.8 


Dec. 
1-14 


4 


4 


, 26 


2.5 


5 


19.2 


200.0 


1 


^ P 


40.0 


Total 


160 


275 


3452 


525.0 


392 


11.4 


74.7 


136 


3 3 


25.9 



- 1 



TABLE III 



Hunting Succ es s (Foot and Au t omobile Combined) per Hou r 





# 

Reports 


# 
Hunters 


Man- 
Hours 


Birds 


Flushed 


Birds 


Shot 


Total 


/100 
Man-Hrs, 


Total 


/100 
Man-Hrs. 


Foot 


134 


205 


489 


491 


100.4 


192 


3S.3 


Auto 


160 


275 


525 


392 


74.7 


136 


25.9 


Total 


294 


430 


1014 




87.1 


328 


32.4 



TABLE IV 



Seven Year Record of Hunter Success 





1957 


1958 


1959 


1960 


1961 


1962 


1963 


Sample Size 
(Man -Hours) 


1932 


2082 


701 


636* 


366* 


454* 


489* 


Kill per 100 
Hours 


19 


27 


39 


28 


13 


37.7 


39.3 



* Figures do not include automobile hunting. 
Those for other years do. 



19 - 



Age and Sex of the Ki ll 



Table V gives the results of the examination of the 
444 specimens of wings and/or tails. The criteria described by 
Hale et al (1954) was employed and data recorded and sex determined 
as described by Rettie (1962). 

Seventy-two birds were recorded as having the central 
tail feather in the blood quill stage , of which the last bird thus 
recorded was shot on November 4. These specimens were of necessity 
sexed by tail band pattern since the feathers were still growing. 
Where this was not possible (6 specimens) as in the case of inter- 
mediate banding the specimens were unsexed. 

Of the remaining 372 specimens, 57 were classified as 
having intermediate tail bands and therefore sexed solely according 
to central tail feather length. The remaining 315 specimens were 
also sexed by central tail feather length but in this instance 
measurement could be checked with tail band features. Fifteen 
specimens or 4.8 per cent did not concur in both tail band and meas- 
urement using the criteria for sexing Wisconsin ruffed grouse as 
described by Hale et al (1954). Ten of these fifteen specimens or 
3.2 per cent of the total were judged to have male banding, but 
measured and recorded as females. 



TABLE V 



AGE AND SEX OF THE RUFFED GROUSE KILL 



Adult Males Juvenile Males 


Adult Females Juvenile Females 


78 122 


73 144 


Unsexed Juveniles 20 


Unaged Males 


Unsexed Adults 7 


Unaged Females 




Total Specimens 444 


Sex Ratio: 


100:109 


Males to Females 200:217 or 


Age Ratio: 


86 or 100:181 


Adults* to Juveniles* 158:2 


Adult Females to Juveniles 


73:286 or 100:392 


* Includes 20 Unsexed Juven 


iles and 7 Unsexed Adults 



TABLE VI 



20 



SEVEN YEAR RECORD OF SEX AND AGE RATIOS 



1 


1957 


1958 


1959 


1960 


1961 


1962 


1963 


# Specimens 
Examined 


165 


647 


362 


480 


121 


419 


444 


Males to 
Females 


100:70 


100:110 


100:110 


100:70 


100:80 


100:82 


100:109 


Adult to 
Juvenile 


100:120 


100:140 


100:250 


100:210 


100:400 


100:260 


100:181 


Ado Female 
to Juvenile 


100:290 


100:360 


100:510 


100:640 


100:1360 


100:800 


100:392 



TABLE VII 



SEASONAL COMPARISON CF AGE RATIO 





Total Ased 


Total Adults 


% Adults/Total 


Birds Shot Sept„ 21- 

Oct. 11 (Before Leaf Fall) 


193 


56 


2i.07 o 


Bird" Shot Oct. 12 - 
Dec, 14 (After Leaf Fall) 


251 


102 


40.6% 



- 21 - 



Positively Sexed Birds 



The forty-nine birds listed in table VIII were sexed 
internally by our officers in the field. The three female 
specimens £ill in the blood quill stage were deleted from 
figures establishing average length of retrice. 

All positively sexed specimens this year fell within 
the limits for establishing sex by central tail feather length as 
per the Wisconsin criteria. 



TABLE VIII 



RETRICE LENGTH OF RUFFED GROUSE OF 
KNOWN SEX, 1963 



Specimen # 


Ase 


Sex 


(Inches) 
Tail Length 


Township 


Date 


10 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-5/16 


McConkey 


Sept. 21 


11 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-5/16 


Hardy 


Sept. 21 


12 

15 
18 


Juvenile 
Juvenile 
Adult 


Female 
Female 
Male 


5-5/16 

(Blood) 

3-2/16 

(Blood) 

6-13/16 


Hardy 

Laurier 

Hagerman 


Sept. 21 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 21 


29 


Adult 


Male 


6-6/16 


Monte ith 


Sept. 23 


30 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-7/16 


Monteith 


Sept. 23 


44 
175 


Juvenile 
Adult 


Female 

Male 


5-4/16 

(Blood) 
6-13/16 


Spence 
Wallbridge 


Sspt. 25 
Oct. 12 


201 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-5/16 


Spence 


Oct. 14 


202 


Adult 


Female 


5-12/16 


Spence 


Oct. 14 


230 


Adult 


Male 


7-2/16 


Hardy 


Oct. 15 


231 


Adult 


Female 


5-0/16 


Hardy 


Oct. 15 


246 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-4/16 


Nip is sing 


Oct. 16 


255 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-1/16 


N. Himsworth 


Oct. 17 


277 


Adult 


Male 


6-7/16 


Ferguson 


Oct. 19 



< ■ 



TABLE VIII 
Cont'd 



22 - 



Specimen # 


Age 


Sex 


(Inches) 
Tail Length 


Township 


■■ "— 

Date 


295 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-6/16 


McDougall 


Oct. 


22 


296 


Adult 


Female 


5-7/16 


Foley 


Oct. 


22 


305 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-2/16 


Foley 


Oct. 


23 


306 


Adult 


Female 


5-4/16 


McDougall 


Oct. 


24 


316 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-5/16 


McKellar 


Oct. 


26 


317 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-7/16 


McDougall 


Oct. 


26 


328 


Adult 


Female 


5-6/16 


McKellar 


Oct. 


31 


329 


Adult 


Male 


6-11/16 


Christie 


Oct. 


31 


ill 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-10/16 


McDougall 


Oct. 


31 


332 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-5/16 


McDougall 


Oct. 


31 


336 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-6/16 


McKellar 


Nov. 


2 


337 


Adult 


Male 


7-4/16 


Hagerman 


Nov. 


4 


338 


Adult 


Male 


6-9/16 


Hagerman 


Nov. 


4 


339 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-10/16 


McDougall 


Nov. 


4 


340 


Adult 


Female 


5- 9./16 


McDougall 


Nov. 


4 


341 


Adult 


Female 


5-11/16 


Hagerman 


Nov. 


4 


343 


Adult 


Male 


6-14/16 


Foley 


Nov. 


8 


344 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-11/16 


Foley 


Nov. 


8 


345 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-3/16 


Foley 


Nov. 


8 


346 


Adult 


Female 


5-4/16 


Hagerman 


Nov. 


11 


347 


Adult 


Female 


5-6/16 


Foley 


Nov. 


15 



- 23 - 



TABLE VIII 
Cont ' d 



Specimen # 


Age 


Sex 


(inches) 
Tail Length 


Township 


Date 


349 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-5/16 


Hagerman 


Nov. 


21 


350 


Juvenile 


Male 


6-6/16 


Hagerman 


Nov. 


23 


378 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-8/16 


Joly 


Oct. 


27 


381 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-3/16 


McDougall 


Dec. 


3 


382 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-2/16 


McDougall 


Dec. 


3 


383 


Adult 


Male 


6-10/16 


McKellar 


Dec. 


3 


400 


Juvenile 


Female 


5-2/16 


Boulter 


Nov. 


26 


401 


Adult 


Male 


6-11/16 


N. Himsworth 


Nov. 


26 


402 


Juvenile 


Male 


7 


McDougall 


Dec. 


14 


409 


Adult 


Female 


5-7/16 


Pr ingle 


Nov. 


24 


410 


Adult 


Male 


6-3/16 


Hardy 


Dec. 


4 


411 


Adult 


Female 


5-6/16 


Hardy 


Dec . 


4 



TABLE IX 



AVERAGE LENGTH 0? RETRICE 



# Specimens 

23 Male (151-7/16) 



23 Female (124-6/1 3) 



Average Length 



6-9/16 



5-6/16 



Range in Inches 



6-1/16" - 7-4/16" 



5-2/16" - 5-12/16" 



* 3 Female specimens with blood quills omitted from above 



24 - 



TABLE 


X 

SUMMARY OF AVERAGE 
SEXED 


LENGTH OF RETRICE FOR POSITIVELY 

BIRDS I960, 1962, 1963 














Male 




Female 




# 

Specimens 


Avg. 
Length 


Range 


# 
Specimens 


Avg. 
Length 


Range 


1960 


11 


6-6/16 


5=14/16 = 
6-10/16 


9 


5-4/16 


5- 5-8/16 


1962 


10 


6-5/16 


6- 6-10/16 


14 


5=8/16 


4-14/16 - 
6-6/16 


1963 


23 


6-9/16 


6-1/16- 
7-4/16 


23 


5-6/16 


5-2/16 - 
5-12/16 




44 


6=7/16 


5=14/16 = 
7-4/16 


46 


5-6/16 


4-14/16 - 
6=6/16 



* It is interesting to note that only one bird (Specimen #320 of 
1962) exceeded the limits as per the Wisconsin criteria. This 
bird having all the characteristics of a male and measuring 6-6/16" 

tail feather length, was sexed internally as a female. 

Spruce Grouse 

Wings and tails from four adult male spruce grouse were 
submitted by hunters in 1963. These were taken in Chisholm (1), 
Laurier (1) and Ballantyne (2) Townships. 

Acknowledgments 

The kind co-operation of the individual sportsmen and 
conservation officers who submitted specimens and hunting data 
which made this report possible is greatly appreciated. 

Literature Cited 



Hale, James B., R. F. Wendt, and G. C. Halazone, 1954. 

Sex and Age Criteria for Wisconsin Ruffed Grouse. Tech. 
Wildl. Bull. No. 9, Wis. Cons. Dept., Madison, Wisconsin. 
24 pp. 



- 25 - 

Macfie, J. A., I960, Grouse Hunting in the Parry Sound District. 
Unpublished District Report. 

Macfie, J. A., 1?61. Grouse Hunting in the Parry Sound District. 
Unpublished District Report. 

Rettie, C. A., 1963. Grouse Hunting in the Parry Sound District, 
1962. Resource Mgt. lept. No. 69, May. 

Rettie, C. A., 1£60, Ruffed Grouse Hunting in the Parry Sound 

District, 1959. Unpublished District Report. 



- 26 - 

THE DEER SITUATION ALONG THE NORTH SHORE OF LAKE HURON 

AND GEORGIAN BAY* 

by 
D. Gillespie 
District Biologist, Sudbury Forest District 



Abstract 

This paper traces the changes that have occurred in 
the forests of the North Shore of Lake Huron and 
Georgian Bay and their effect on the deer population. 
In order to reconstruct the picture of deer numbers, 
the early history of logging and pulpwood operations 
in the Central Region is discussed. Evidence points 
to a movement of deer from Michigan into the Sault 
Ste. Marie region in the 1830' s. Following extensive 
cutting operations deer became plentiful in the cut 
over areas by about 1910, and reached a peak in the 
1930 f s. The decline started in the 1950 f s. 



Along the North Shore of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay lies 
a thin strip of land that today is called "the deer slums of 
Ontario." This land has not always supported a deer herd nor has 
it always been marginal for the production of deer. 

Deer were very plentiful along the North Shore during 
the days of the depression and during the war years of the 1940* s 
but they were also absent from this area during the early period of 
settlement in the late 1800' s. Today, in the 1960's, we are faced 
with a scarcity of deer in Sault Ste. Marie, Sudbury and North Bay 
and to provide the reasons for this, it is necessary to construct 
a history of the changes that have taken place in the forests and 
their related wildlife populations. It is necessary to consider 
not only the deer populations but the environment in which they 
lived in the past, live in the present and will live in the future 
if the problem is to be fully understood. It is therefore, not a 
problem of a single species but a problem of a community and its 
environment. If one member fails to do its job, others suffer, and 
a new member may move in. Here, in the Sault Ste. Marie - Sudbury « 
North Bay area the forest is failing to provide adequate food and 
cover for our deer herds and die deer are suffering. 

*A paper (abridged) presented at the 1962 Algonquin Zone 2, Ontario 
Federation of Anglers and Hunters Massey Conservation Workshop. 



- 27 - 

Today it appears that nan is a dominating factor in much 
of this area. Many of the older residents of the Worth Shore can 
look back upon many of the changes brought about by man. Settle- 
ment has increased, farms have been cut out of the bush, lumber 
industries have moved in (and because of the subsequent changes 
in the forest some have ceased to operate), mines have been located 
and smelters constructed, new industries have appeared, the human 
population has multiplied and indirectly, because of man, the deer 
herd has diminished in size. 

While the decline of the deer herd is fairly well 
documented by newspaper accounts and the records of this Department, 
the early history is scattered and scanty. Old geological and land 
survey records have been searched, the archives of the Jesuit 
seminaries examined and early settlers still living in tie area 
questioned for information that may lead to a detailed picture of 
the area's former forest and wildlife complex. One of the best 
sources of forest information was given to us by a former District 
Forester, Mr. Tom Thorpe, Prior to his retirement, Mr. Thorpe 
compiled a review of ttie logging and pulpwood operations in the 
Sudbury District during the years 1901-1950, (1). During a recent 
visit to the Sudbury District Office he supplied additional 
material on the moose, deer and caribou herds of an area including 
Sudbury, Chapleau and Gogama Forest Histricts. This, with the 
knowledge gathered from the previously mentioned sources, forms 
the basis of this report. 

Before beginning the history of the deer in the Central 
Region, a consideration should be made of the early conditions 
found and the resultant changes brought about by early settlement 
in the lake states of the U. S. A. to provide a basis for our 
theory of how deer entered the region. Most of the lake states and 
the states bordering Canada to the southeast have prepared fairly 
detailed records of their early settlement, early wildlife popu- 
lations and the changes that have taken place in both of them. 
We have drawn on only two of them for this report - Wisconsin and 
Maine, but the picture presented by the rest of the states comple- 
ments the facts the two provide. 

Dahlberg and Guettinger (2), while dealing with the 
Wisconsin deer herd indicate that the original distribution and 
density of the white- tailed deer was undoubtedly related directly 
to Wiscons5.n*s original habitat. The extensive virgin forest of 
northern Wisconsin was composed, for the most part, of big timber. 
The forest floor under these tall trees was relatively bare of 
vegetation because the heavy canopy of leaves prevented much sun- 
light frcm reaching the ground. Thus they assumed that the northern 
range of the white-tailed deer was considerably smaller than it is 
today. 



- 23 - 

Early historical records suggest their assumption to 
be correct. Lapham (3), in his book "Wisconsin", reports that 
Indians in the northern portion of the state lived almost exclusively 
on fish due to a lack of gane animals and the absence of agriculture. 
Shiras (4), in a consideration of wildlife in the Lake Superior 
region, reported that in 1870 only a few deer were found along the 
south shore of Lake Superior. This information immediately suggests 
the question c "Where did the deer that now inhabit northern Wisconsin 
come from and why did they move in?" Rodolf (5), in his review of 
the early pioneer days in this region, suggests the answer when he 
examines the conditions found in the southern portion of the state 
which borders on a prairie-type habitat. In the south he reports the 
country was full of game and deer were numerous. With the beginning 
of settlement, logging and subsequently fires in the northern portion 
of the state, the deer of the south pushed north to the shores of Lake 
Superior and Lake Michigan. 

A similar record of range expansion is available from 
the state of Maine. Banasiak (6) reports that while deer were 
commonly found along the coast and up the major river valleys, 
they were virtually absent from the interior. He cites the lack of 
necessary food under the mature forest canopy and the restrictive 
snow depths of the interior as the factors limiting any invasion 
by the coastal deer. Banasiak goes on to point out that with the 
new lumbering activities and land clearing by settlers new shrub 
growth resulted. Burning was a practice commonly used by the 
settlers. They would burn a patch and plant it the following year 
with crops. Seldom did they plant the same patch on two consecutive 
years, but let the patches grow into brush. This pattern resulted 
in nearly ideal combinations of food and cover for the white-tailed 
deer. The expected expansion of Maine's deer range and an increase 
in the herd size followed. 

The changes in habitat recorded for Wisconsin and Maine 
represent the pattern that followed the early settlers west and north 
from the New England states. In different areas different food and 
cover species were involved but the ultimate result was the same - 
areas that had no deer before settlement now support large populations 
and areas that supported some deer range saw the range expand. 

Peterson (7), in his consideration of the changes in the 
mammalian fauna of Ontario, capped the northward expansion of the 
white- tailed deer in Ontario, What we now consider to be the 
northern limit of deer range is far south of their northern penetration 
The Chapleau District, for example, still supports a few deer and 
Swastika District, which is more than 100 miles north of North Bay, 
still provides a huntable deer herd. This latter case is undoubtedly 
due to the farming settlement of this area and its unique habitat. 



- 29 - 

It was previously noted that many interesting facts on 
the early history of the regions 1 forests have been obtained from 
former District Forester, Ton Thorpe. Mr. Thorpe, in his records of 
early lumbering provided us with a remarkable picture of how the for- 
est of the Central Region has changed since 1900. It is from his 
paper that most of the following information was abstracted. 

The size of the industry might be measured by the manpower 
present in the bush during the early years. In the Massey area, 
for example, 2000 loggers were on the payroll, a similar number were 
working out of -"ebbwood which is 10 miles east of Massey and 1200 
men were employed during the period 1901-1915 in the forests about 
the village which is now called Nairn Centre. 200 men were employed 
seven months of the year 15 hours a day from break-up to freeze-up 
just sorting logs at the Spanish boom. Twelve large saw mills 
operated within a radius of 50 miles of the mouth of the Spanish 
River. Many of the mills ran night and day for several seasons. 
Rafts of logs containing up to three million feet of timber were 
towed from the mouth of the Spanish River to Sarnia. These 
operations were taking place just after the turn of the century and 
continued at full pace well into the 1920's. 

During one season, one company took 20 million feet of 
white and red pine sawlogs off Capreol Township alone. Similarly, 
one township near Nairn Centre produced for one company 93 million 
feet of white and red pine sawlogs between 1910-1924. In the Lake 
Penage area, a company removed 114 million feet of white and red 
pine from three townships. To make this figure more impressive it 
should be appreciated that one o:: the three townships is 50 per cent 
water and the other two show a liberal coverage of lakes. One 
hundred and sixty- two million feet of white and red pine, nine mil- 
lion feet of jack pine, 2-3/4 million feet of spruce and 100,000 
feet of tamarack were removed by one company from a portion of 
what has been termed the French River deer range. 

Considering for a moment pulpwood operations, one of the 
area's earliest operators removed one million cords of spruce 
pulpwood, 20,000 cords of balsam fir, more than a million jack pine 
railway ties and 40,000 car stakes between the years 1901 and 1928. 

In summary, it has been calculated that between 1901 and 
1930, two billion, 520 million feet of sawlog timber were taken 
from the Sudbury District alone, without taking into consideration 
pulpwood operations, railway ties, and cedar poles. 

To bring us up-to-date it might be well to consider the 
woods operation in the Sudbury District today and compare it to the 
past. About 13,000,000 board feet of sawlogs were cut last year 
compared to the thirty year average (1901-1930) of 84,000,000 board 



- 30 - 

feet per year. Last year about 54,000 cords of pulpwood were har- 
vested in the Sudbury District compared to the 28 year average of 
one operator of about 35,000 cords per year. The estimated number 
of men employed in the bush last year for all of the Sudbury District 
was about 700 men compared to the 2,000 loggers who were employed in 
the Massey area alone just after the turn of the century. 

It should be noted that it is not our intent to leave the 
impression that Sudbury District was the centre of all timber 
operations, but the practice of large scale tree removal was typical 
across the North Shore of Lake Huron from Sault Ste. Marie and 
inland to North Bay. These operations followed previous cuttings 
to the south in Parry Sound and Pembroke Districts. 

The picture presented by these statistics, we hope, will 
give some idea of the differences that you or I or the deer might 
have encountered had we been present in the Central Region 50 to 75 
years ago. With this picture in mind, we will consider the deer 
family and its story of establishment in the Central Region. It is 
recognized by most people that the woodland caribou is a resident 
of the mature forest where lichen growth predominates. The early 
settlers on Manitoulin Island (around 1875) report a mature forest 
with caribou present, but no deer. Caribou were also reported along 
the North Shore but they slowly retreated with the advancement of 
lumbering operations. The last caribou shot on Manitoulin Island 
was taken in the winter of 1903. A few bands of caribou were reported 
by the Sault Ste. Marie game overseer near Oba in 1914. Similar 
reports from Chapleau and Gogama were made about this time, as the 
caribou were generally retreating northward. 

Moose were present on Manitoulin Island during early 
settlement but were never numerous. The moose herd gradually dimi- 
nished in numbers, until today, we rarely hear of reports of moose 
and never see them on the Island. After the turn of the century 
moose were generally considered plentiful along the North Shore 
from Sault Ste. Marie to North Bay. There are indications that 
the moose population of this area increased through the early part 
of the century until the 30' s when a decrease was noted. In 1938 
the season for hunting moose was closed and since that time there 
appears to have been a decided increase in their numbers and today 
we have liberalized our seasons considerably, based on this increase. 

Deer were not present on Manitoulin Island and along the 
North Shore of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay according to the Jesuit 
records (1850-1375). To determine when and how they arrived in 
this region, we can look to our nearest neighbouring lake state, Mich- 
igan. Bartlett (3) describes deer as being scarce in the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan previous to 1850. However, after logging 



- 31 - 

operations, which were under way in the 50' s the deer moved north 
and were recorded as plentiful by 1870. It was probably at about 
this tine that the white- tailed deer moved farther north into Sault 
Ste. Marie and across Drummonc Island to Cockburn Island and finally 
on to Manitoulin Island in 1880. The first record of deer we have 
for the Sault area is 1887 and deer tracks were first seen on 
Manitoulin Island. Unfortunately our knowledge of the area south and 
east of North Bay is limited and our assumption that the deer of this 
area originated from the south central area of Ontario (Parry Sound, 
Lindsay, Pembroke) is purely speculation. Our first note of deer 
in the Nipissir.g region is from the Provincial Land Surveyor's records 
which suggest deer were present as early as 1890. 

The build up of deer on Manitoulin Island and along the 
North Shore, as reported by the game overseers for the Central 
Region, suggest that at first the increase was slow and spotty 
gaining momentum about 191G and reaching its peak in the 30' s. 
This level was held for about ten years and in the 50' s a decline 
started, slow at first, but with the severe winters of 1258-1959 and 
1959-1960 the descent became speculative. 

Evidence that the build up of deer was a direct result of 
lumbering operations and subsequent fires was pointed out to us by 
Mr. Thorpe while discussing the logging of the Nairn Centre area. 
The removal of red and white pine, spruce and tamarack in this 
area was carried out first north of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 
By .1901 deer were plentiful in the cut over area and were hunted by 
loggers. South of the railroad deer were virtually absent and the 
mature forest was yet to be cut. It wasn't until the 1920* s that 
this area was cut and by 1940 the picture had reversed itself. 
South of the railroad deer were plentiful and to the north scarce. 

It is hoped that this report on the early history of the 
Central Region's deer herd and its changing environment will impress 
upon you that the conditions with which we are dealing today are 
not similar to those of the past nor will those of the future be the 
same. If we can modify our thinking about wildlife and accept 
the fact that we are living with a wildlife population which has 
been modified by man's actions and will continue to be affected 
by man-made changes then we will have made a start at conservation. 



- 32 - 

References 

1. Thorpe, T. 1951, A Review of the Logging and Pulp Operations in 

the Sudbury District During the Years 1901=1'S51. 

2. Dahlberg, B. L. and R. G. Guettinger, 1956. The Ttfhite- tailed 

Deer in Wisconsin. Tech. Wildlife Bull. No. 14, Wisconsin 

Conservation Dept. 

3. Laphan, I. A. 1846. Wisconsin. I. A. Hopkins, Milwaukee, 

202 pp. 

4. Shiras, George 1921. The Wildlife of Lake Superior, Past and 

Present, National Geographic Magazine, 40(2): 
113-204. 

5. Rodolf, Theodore 1900. Pioneering in the Wisconsin Lead Region. 

Wis. Historical Collections, 15:338-389. 

6. Banasiak, Chester F. 1961. Deer in. Maine. Game Div. Bull. 

No. 6, Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Gane, Augusta, Maine. 

7. Peterson, Randolph L. 1957. Changes in the Mammalian Fauna of 

Ontario, Roy. Ont. Museum and University of Toronto Press, 
Toronto. 

8. Bartlett, Ilo H. 1948. Michigan White-tailed Deer. Unpub, Ms., 

typed, pp. 1-77. 



- 33 - 
SUGGESTIONS FOR WILDLIFE HABITAT IMPROVEMENT 

by 
R. E. Mason 
District BiologIst s Lake Huron District 



A bstra ct 

This paper is intended to give an introduction into 
the subject of wildlife habitat improvement. Infor- 
mation is given on establishing conifer and hardwood 
plantations and the planting of upland areas for crops, 
pasture, shrub rows and mast. Submergent and emergent 
aquatics are discussed and a reference list of plants 
is provided, cross indexed for the wildlife species 
which would most likely benefit from the planting. 
Other subjects mentioned are den and nesting boxes, 
ditching, impounding and clearing* An extensive 
bibliography offers suggestions for further reading 
on this subject. 



iS 



Introduction 

The suggestions contained herein for improvement practices 
for wildlife are not intended to offer a complete or full treatment 
of wildlife management practices. They are rather intended to 
provide a convenient starting point for work of this nature. The 
information has been secured mainly from the appended list of 
references, from which more complete Information can be obtained. 
Most of the appended references themselves have bibliographies for 
still additional information. 



(1 

(2 

(3 

(4 

(5 

(6 

(7 

(8 

(9 

(10 

(11 

(12 



The Information has been arranged in the following order 

Establishing conifer plantations 

Establishing hardwood plantations 

Cultivated crop areas 

Pasture crop areas 

Shrub row plantings 

Mast plantings 

Submergent aquatics 

Emergent aquatics 

Den and nesting boxes and platforms 

Ditching 

Impounding 

Cutting, pruning and clearing. 



- 34 - 

For those improvements requiring planting a reference 
list of plants is provided, cross indexed for the wildlife species 
which would experience benefit from the planting of particular 
plant species. In the tables, F indic ates jyalue_jEor^ foo d, and C^ 
value for cover. Double notaticrTTridlcates food_or cover of parti- 



cular~benefit , Provided as well Is a list of scientific and common 
names of the plant species listed, along with some broad site 
preferences for each species and individual considerations such as 
danger to livestock or agricultural crops . 

Wildlife species considered are: 

- cottontail rabbits 

- snowshoe hare 

- European hare 

- ring -necked pheasant 

- ruffed grouse 

- Hungarian partridge 

- bobwhite quail 

- white- tailed deer 

- squirrels 

- beaver 

- muskrat 

- woodcock 

- waterfowl 

The lumping of waterfowl may cause some consternation, 
since many species with somewhat variable environmental preferences 
are included. This same problem occurs to a large degree even when 
only one species is considered, as most animals have seasonally 
and even daily environmental preference changes, e.g. breeding vs. 
nesting, vs. feeding, vs. loafing cover, and summer vs. winter 
requirements. To help overcome this obvious difficulty with a 
plan of this type, variety both within and among individual improve- 
ments cannot be over stressed. 

Prior to the implementation of these proposals, considera- 
tion should be given to what species of wildlife are to be managed 
on the area. Following this, a detailed map of the area showing 
topography, existing morphometrical features, (streams, ponds, 
roadways, fence rows, coniferous and deciduous cover etcetera), and 
distribution of sites (drainage, land form, soil types), and the 
areas of each should be prepared. The wildlife improvements, their 
location, type, and area, can then be shown on the nap, and an 
accompanying list of plant species, considering wildlife species 
and site, can be prepared. Before this plan is implemented, the 
map indicating the proposed improvements should be examined by 
wildlife personnel. 



- 35 - 

Finally, this material should be prepared in loose leaf 
foro to facilitate the numerous additions of information which 
can be expected as experience accumulates. Some measure of 
actual success in the form of a greater production or harvest of 
wildlife is desirable, if the program is to be justified. Also 
if the program is to be developed on a realistic scale, nursery 
sources of wildlife plants and funds for the installation and 
maintenance of improvements will be required as well as funds for 
extension services. 

General 

(1) Provide variety. Cover and food requirements vary seasonally 
with wildlife species. Those requirements which are present in 
the least quantity and quality will limit the production of 
wildlife even though other requirements may be excessively present. 
Interspersion of varieties of habitat types helps to insure 
efficient use by wildlife. 

(2) Avoid maturity of vegetation. The wildlife species considered 
here reach greater densities in what are usually considered to be 
early successional stages, with due consideration to variety. 

(3) Wildlife improvements numbered III, IV, and V are of greatest 
importance and should be included in all wildlife planning. 
Improvements numbered I and II would be expected in all cases, 
since timber production is likely to be involved. Improvements 
numbered X and XI are desirable, but are not likely to be possible 

in all cases. Improvements listed under number XII are likely to be 
required on all established forested areas. 

I Establishing Conifer Plantations 

(wildlife species - tree species cross references given under shrub 
row planting chart.) 

Applicable to old field areas or areas devoid of cover. 

(1) Limit conifer stands to 10 acres or less. 

(2) Space trees 10 x 10 feet. 

(3) Stands to be rectangularly shaped, or some other shape to create 
a maximum amount of "edge". 

(4) Lay out the whole plantation in a checkerboard design, using 
rectangular spaces. Alternate spaces to be used for wildlife and 
timber production. 

(5) Do not plant sloughs, marshes, stream banks, orchards, areas of 
dense brush, or fence rows to conifers. Leave individual apples, 
hawthorns, cherries, and similar hardwoods as they may occur on the 
area to be planted. 

(6) Mix conifer species and ages within the stands and over the 
whole plantation. 

(7) Plant one or two rows of spruce around pine stands. 



- 36 - 

II Establishing Hardwood Planta tions 

(wildlife species-tree species cross references given under shrub 
row planting chart). 

Applicable to old field areas, or areas devoid of 
cover. 

(1) Limit hardwood stands to 10 acres or less. 

(2) Stands to be rectangularly shaped, or some other shape to 
create a maximum amount of edge. 

(3) Lay out whole plantation in a checkerboard design, using 
rectangular spaces. Alternate spaces to be used for wildlife and 
timber production*, 

(4) Do not plant sloughs, marshes, stream banks, orchards, conifer 
copses, or fence rows to hardwoods. Leave individual conifers as 
they may occur on the area to be planted. 

(5) Mix hardwood species and ages within the stands, and over the 
whole plantation. 

(6) Plant one or two rows of spruce around hardwood stands. 

III Cultivated Crop Areas 

Applicable to rectangular spaces left in conifer and 
hardwood plantations, areas in plantations where trees failed 
to survive, fireguards, roadways, in vicinity of ponds or areas 
created especially for this purpose by bulldozing, cutting. 

(1) Have soil tested to determine what fertility treatments will 
be required. 

(2) Cultivated crop areas to be between one and five acres in size. 

(3) Areas to be rectangular or some other shape to create maximum 
amount of edge. 

(4) Individual crop areas can be sown to a single crop or mixed 
crops. 

(5) Semi harvest crops, i.e. cutting and raking, stooking, 
etcetera, 

(6) Will require annual re- seeding. 

(7) Corn, seed at 3.0=3.5 bushels per acre. 

barley 3.0-4.0 

winter wheat 2.5-3.0 

spring wheat 2.2-2.8 

millet 2.0-3.0 

buckwheat 1.5-2.0 



SOOWJ" 



- 37 - 

IV Pasture Crop Areas 

Applicable to rectangular spaces left in conifer and 
hardwood plantations, areas in plantations where trees failed to 
survive, fireguards, roadways, in the vicinity of ponds, or in 
areas created especially for this purpose by bulldozing, cutting. 

(1) Have soil tested to determine what fertility treatments will be 
required. 

(2) Pasture crop areas to be between one and five acres in size. 

(3) Areas to be rectangular or some other shape to create a 
maximum amount of edge, 

(4) Individual areas to be sown to mixed crops. 

(5) Except for areas intended for use by nesting waterfowl, pasture 
crops should be mowed at least once or twice per year, preferably 
late in the summer. Light grazing could be used to replace mowing. 
Leave at least 25' around duck nests unmowed. 

(6) pasture crop areas may require re- seeding on about a five year 
basis, depending upon pasture species selected. 

V Shrub Row Plantings 

Applicable to borders of cultivated and pasture crop 
areas, surrounding conifer and hardwood plantations, roadsides, 
fireguards, stream banks, pond borders. 

(1) Select shrub species which have most chance of survival 
on the particular site, with consideration of the wildlife 
species expected to benefit. 

(2) Vary the distribution of shrub species within the planting. 
Coniferous species should be interspersed in the shrub row 
planting in locations where coniferous cover is lacking, or place the 
conifers to form the centre of the row. 

(3) Initial plantings should be dense enough to supply fairly 
short term benefits. 

(4) Once established, some additional planting may be required. 
Spraying with herbicides at breast height can increase suckering 
of species such as mountain maple. Selective cutting to increase 
suckering or to remove mature stems would likely be required in 
well established shrub row plantings. 

VI Mast Plantings 

■Of limited value for wildlife except for the production 
of deer, squirrels, and some upland game birds such as grouse or 
turkeys, with squirrels perhaps the major species. Perhaps mast 
plantings would be of greater benefit if used to increase the 
variety in shrub row plantings. 



- 38 - 

The minimum numbers of mast trees required to keep one 
gray squirrel 34 weeks in an average mast year are given in the 
following table (ref. Uhlig, K.G., 1956). 



D.B.H. 


Chestnut 


White 


Red 


Black 


Scarlet 




oak 


oak 


oak 


oak 


oak 


10 


73 


94 


165 


60 


26 


12 


22 


47 


30 


39 


17 


14 


13 


24 


11 


29 


12 


16 


11 


15 


7 


24 


a 


18 


8 


10 


5 


19 


5 


22 


7 


6 


4 


14 


4 


26 


6 


5 


5 


11 


4 


30 


6 


5 


7 


9 


4 



VII Submergent Aquatics 

Applicable to ponds, ditches, marshes. Although submergent 
aquatics will likely quickly become established in new ponds, 
introductions of the species listed will insure representation of 
some species of benefit to wildlife. Plants should be selected 
from similar aquatic environments, including climate, water 
fluctuation, depth, current, turbidity, chemical composition, 
bottom characteristics, and soil type. 

VIII Emergent aquatics 

Applicable to pond borders, ditch banks, marshes and 
bogs. As in the case of submergent aquatics, some introductions 
will insure some representation of desirable species and variety. 
Also plants should be selected from similar aquatic environments. 



!>J 



39 - 



IX Den and nesting boxes and platforms 

Applicable to situations where these types of cover are 
lacking and difficult to supply. 

(1) Squirrel nesting boxes . 




Opening - 2" eave over opening 

^\~ 

width 8 S! - hinged bottom for 
seasonal servicing. 

1 cm 

side view 



-erect on trees at least 10 ?t DBH 
-2Q-3Q 1 from ground 
-opening adjacent to tree 
-require cleaning every 2-3 years 

(2) Wood duck nesting boxes . 

Applicable to trees or stubs with bases in water, or 
prominent trees on shorelines of ponds and small marshes. 



ENTRANCE HOLE 

bottom hinged for 

seasonal servicing; place 

five one quarter inch holes 

in bottom for drainage of 

nest materials. 

over the 4" square (or 

diameter) entrance hole, 

place a piece of sheet 

metal. Cut an oval 

(5" x 4") opening in the 

metal. 




SIDE VIEW 



FRONT VIEW 



/.. 



':'•' 



.J ■ : ■ . ■ 






'■ '■> ) 



- 40 - 

- place nesting boxes about 4 1 above water. 

- place conical raccoon guard (aetal construction) 
between box and water. 

- boxes should face water. 

- remove all branches and shrubbery from approach 
to the box,, 

- place box in conspicuous location, 

- place 2" of shavings in box for nesting material. 

(3) Aerial goose ne sting platforms. 

- platforms 30" long, 26" wide, and 6" deep, 
resembling a planter in construction. 

- place soil and duff in platform. 

- erect platforms at heights between 20-50* on 
shorelines 3 or en islands. 

- select secluded sites, not likely to be subject 
to human interference. 

- replenish soil and duff annually. 

(4) Cottontai l__3rush_Piles 

- construct brush piles 12-15 { in diameter, and 5 ? 
in height, 

- locate brush piles near shrubby growth, pasture, 
creeks, ponds, fence rows. 

- if available, brush piles can be constructed over 
logs, bricks j, stone foundations, culvert pipes, 
similar waste materials. 

- allow uncontrolled growth of herbage around brush 
piles. 



Applicable to poorly drained lowlands, sedge meadows, 
bogs, sluggish streams o Although primarily of importance for 
muskrats, most wildlife species will benefit. 

- lay out ditch in following design. 

- no more than 3G0feet of ditch in a straight line. 

- spoil banks not more than 40 feet long, and 
staggered on opposite sides of the ditch. 

- ditch 5' ; in depth, and 13-15 feet long. 

- space ditches 50 to 100 feet apart. 

- plant banks to grass, sweet clover, shrub row 
plantings, and emergent aquatics. 



41 



XI Inpoundings or Digging Pon ds 



Applicability dependent on site; i.e. water supply, in- 
pervious soils, ease of dan construction, and other engineering 
considerations • 

(1) Ponds for fish nust have minimum size requirenents as follows : 

- area, not less than one acre, larger for warn water 
ponds . 

- depth, not less than 15 feet naxinun depth. 

- pond nust be completely drainable. 

(2) Wildlife Ponds 

- area: preferably over one acre, although sone 
wildlife benefit is likely to result fron smaller 
ponds . 

- depth: not critical; should have perhaps 4 1 depth 
at spillway. 

- water control structure is desirable for aquatic 
vegetation control. 

- in large impoundments, nunerous islands (either 
constructed or natural,) increase benefit to 
waterfowl . 

- concrete box spillway with fitted splashboards is 
usually the nost satisfactory discharge and water 
control structure. Metal pipe through earth filled 
dyke to handle run off. Energency grassed spillway 
should be provided around the pond. 

- sides of inpoundnent should be gently sloped for 
emergent aquatic establishment. 

XII Cutting, Pruning, Clearing 

Applicable to the establishment of areas for 
cultivated or pasture crops within existing timbered sites. 
Pruning of shrubbery to promote sucker growth or rejuvenate 
shrubbery. 

- Shrub row species which are approaching maturity 
can be pruned or sprayed at breast height to promote 
greater ground level growth. 

- Pruning of conifers along edges should be avoided. 

- Cleared areas for cultivated and pasture crops 
should be undertaken along the lines mentioned under 
items I and II. 

- Release cuttings may assist in opening dense 
canopies which are supressing or shading out 
desirable vines, shrubs, and grasses. 



;.?;n 



42 - 



Cuttings can be nade part way through stems of 
poplars, hawthorns, conifers, leaving the bark 
intact on one side. The trees are then bent over, 
so that the tops rest on the ground. Excellent 
wildlife cover results. 



CULTIVATED CROP CHART 



Plant Species 


Cottontail 
Rabbit 


Snowshoe 
Hare 


European 
Hare 


Ring-necked 
Pheasant 


Ruffed 
Grouse 


Hungarian 
Partridge 


Bobwhite 
Quail 


White- tailed 
Deer 


CO 
r-4 
0) 

u 
u 

•H 

3 

cr 

C/) 


Woodcock 
Beaver Muskrat 


u 
o 
■u 

CO 


Corn 

Zea mays 


FFC 




F 


FFC 




FFC 


FFC 


F 


FFC 




F 


Buckwheat 

Fagopyrum sagittatun 


FC 






FC 






FC 








FF 


Buckwheat 
F. tataricun 


FC 






FC 






FC 








FF 


Sorghun 
Sorgum vulgare 








FC 








F 








Sorghum 

S. halepense 








FC 








F 








Barley 

Hordeum vulgare 


F 


F 


F 


F 
















Wheat 

Triticum aestivun 


F 


F 


F 


F 




1/ 

FF 


F 


1/ 

F 






FF 


Rye 

Secale cereale 


F 


F 


F 


F 
















Millet 

Panicum miliaceum 








F 






F 








FF 


Oats 

Avena sativa 


FC 


F 


F 


F 






F 








F 


Flax 

Linum usitatissimun 








F 
















Sunflower 
Helianthus spp. 


F 






F 

















1/ Fall wheat 



- 43 - 

PASTURE CROP CHART 



























i 


Flant Species 


Cottontail 
Rabbits 


0) 

u 

S3 

O 
O 
£1 
to 

o 

C/5 


0) 

u 

CO 

G 

CO 
CD 

a 
o 
u 

3 


Ring -necked 
Pheasant 


CD 
CO 

3 

o 

CD 

3 
Pi 


Hungarian 
Partridge 


•H 
CO 
3 

cy 

4J 

•H 

•§ 

O 


u 

Q) 
CU 
Q 

T) 

0) 
pH 
•H 

CO 
4J 

l 

CD 
4J 


CO 

CD 

u 
u 

•H 

3 

o- 

CO 


u 

CO 
U 

CO 

i 


H 

o 

> 

CO 

y 

o 
o 
*o 
o 
o 
2s 


O 

H 

cy 


Canada bluegrass 
Poa conpressa 


FFC 


F 


FC 


FC 


F 


FFC 


FFC 


F 








cc 


Kentucky bluegrass 
P. pratensis 


FFC 


F 


FC 


FC 


F 


FFC 


FFC 


F 








cc 


Timothy 

Phleun pratense 


FC 




C 


C 


F 


FC 


FC 










c 


Witch grass 
Panic un spp. 


C 




c 


C 




C 


FC 










FC 


Orchard grass 
^JLhXli-JL glone^ata 


c 




c 


C 




C 


C 










C 


Br one 

Br onus inernis 


FC 




FC 


FC 


F 


FC 


FC 










CC 


Red top 
Agrostis alba 


c 




C 


c 


F 


C 


C 










CC 


Reed canary grass 
Phalaris arundinacea 


FC 






C 




c 


c 






FFC 




c 


Red clover 
Trifoliun pratense 


FF 


FF 


FF 


F 


F 


F 


FF 


F 








c 


White clover 
T. repens 


FF 


FF 


FF 


F 
F 


F 


F 


FF 


F 








c 


Aisike clover 
T. hybridun 


FF 


FF 


FF 


F 


F 


FF 


F 








c 


Rabbit foot clover 
T. arvense 


FF 


FF 


FF 


F 


F 


F 


FF 


F 








c 


Sweet clover 
Melilotus spp. 


FFC 


FFC 


FFC 


FC 




FC 


FC 


F 




F 




cc 


Alfalfa 
Medicago sativa 


FFC 


FFC 


FFC 


FC 




FC 


FC 


F 








c 


Birdsf oot trefoil 
Lotus corniculatus 


C 






C 




C 


C 












Vetch 

Vic ia spp. 


FC 






FC 




FC 


FC 










c 


"h^rnyard grass 
Echinochloa spp. 


C 






C 




FC 


FC 










FC 


/Slough grass 
Bechnannia syzigachne 


c 






C 
















FC 


Hairgrass 
Deschanpsia spp . 


c 






C 
















FC 





























1 


- 44 - 
SHRUB ROW PLANTING CHART 
















Plant Species 


r-4 

4J CO 
C 4J 
O °H 

4J £) 

O CO 


CD 

o 

CO 

o u 

f3 CO 
CO S3 


CD 
U 
CO 
33 

C 
CO 
Qi 

O 
U 
3 
W 


Qi 

V 4J 
Q) c 

C CO 

1 CO 

tO CO 

c o 

•H 43 


CO 

3 
O 
U 

o 

3 


CO bO 

h -H 

CO U 
to U 

S ^ 

S3 Ch 


r-l 
•H 

CO 
3 

c5 

•u 

■g 

o 

(3 


Qi 

o 
p 

13 

0) 
i-l 
•H 

CO 
4J 

i 

Qi 
■U 
•H 

<§ 


CO 
r-i 
0) 

u 
u 

•H 

3 

cr 

C/) 


4J 
CO 

u 

CO 

1 


> 

CO 

cy 


1 

o 

o 

o 

•o 



o 


r-l 

o 

J-l 

cy 
■u 
CO 


Dogwood 
Cornus spp. 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


F 


C 


CC 


FF 


C 






C 




Bramble 
Rubus spp . 


FFC 


FFC 


FC 


FC 




C 


C 














Ironwood 

Ostrya virginiana 


F 


F 


F 




F 






FC 












Sweet- fern 
Conptonia peregrina 


FC 


























Poplar, aspen 
Populus spp. 


FFC 


FFC 


FFC 


p 


FFC 


c 


c 


FC 






FF 


C 




Birch 
Betula spp. 


FFC 


FC 


FC 


C 


FC, 


c 


c 


FC 






FF 


C 




Alder 
Alnus spp , 


FC 


FC 


FC 


C 




c 




FC 






FF 


c 




Sumach 
Rhus spp. 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FCC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FF 












Plum, cherry 
Prunus spp . 


FFC 


FFC 




C 


FC 


c 


c 


FF 


c 




F 






Maple 
Acer spp . 


FFC 


FFC 




C 


FC 






FFC 


FFC 




F 


c 




Honey locust 
Gleditsia triacanthos 


FFC 




FC 


C 


FC 


FC 
















Locust 
Robinia spp. 


FC 




FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FFC 




C 






CC 




Elm 

Ulmus spp. 


FC 


FC 


FC 


ft 


FC 






FC 


c 










Kackberry 

Celtis occidentalis 


FC 






c 




















Common elder 
Sambucus canadensis 


C 




C 


c 


c 




CC 


FC 













- 45 - 



SHRUB ROW PLANTING CHART (Cont'd) 



Plant Species 



CO 

4J 

PS 

o 



CO 

■u 



4J ,£> 
O CO 



0) 

o 
,g 

CO 

o 

G 
CO 



<y 
u 



g 

CO 

cy 

O 
W 



cy 

CJ W 

cy c 

G ca 

1 CO 

00 CO 

G O 

•H J3 



<y 

CO 

3 
O 

•O 

CD 
<W 

*w 
3 



G cy 

CO CO 
•H T3 
U «H 
CO J-i 

§u 
CO 
S3 P-i 



•H 

s 

3 
C 

cy 

4J 
•H 

•§ 

O 
PQ 



cy 
cy 
Q 

<y 

rH 
«H 

CO 
4J 

i 

cy 

•H 

5 



CO 

cy 
u 
u 

«H 
3 

cr 

CO 



CO 



CO 



M 

cy 
> 

CO 
cy 

C9 



CJ 

O 

u 

o 
o 

& 



o 

cy 



Willow 
Salix spp 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



C 



c 



FC 



c 



Hawthorn 
Crataegus spp 

Rose 
Rosa spp. 



FFC 



FFC 



FFC 
FC 



FFC 



FC 



G 
FC 



F: 



FC 



Winter berry 

Ilex verticillata 



FC 



FC 



Bittersweet 
Celastrus scandens 



C 



Virginia creeper 
Parthenocissus spp 



Grape 
Vitis spp. 



CC 
CC 



c 



CC 



CC 



Basswood 

Tilia anericana 

Honeysuckle 
Lonicera spp. 

Snowberry 
Synphoricarpos spp 

Viburnum spp. 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



CC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



CC 



CC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FF 



FFCC 



FC 



FC 



FF 



7' 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



Barberry 
Berber is spp. 



Buckthorn 
Rhannus spp. 

White cedar 

Thuja occiden talis 



FFC 

F 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FC 



FCC 



FCC 



FCC 



FCC 



Juniper 
Juniper us spp. 



FCC 



FCC 



FC 



- 46 



SHRUB ROW PLANTING CHART (Cont'd; 



Plant Species 


Cottontail 
Rabbits 


Snowshoe 
Hare 


CD 

K 

C 

CO 
0) 

a 



u 

3 

w 


Ring -necked 
Pheasant 


(!) 
CO 

3 



u 

O 

•o 

0) 

«w 

3 
C4 


Hungarian 
Partridge 


•H 
CO 
3 

<y 

0) 

•u 

•H 

•1 

o 


White- tailed Deer 


CO 
r-H 

CD 
U 

u 

•H 

3 
XT 
CO 


u 

CO 

u 

CO 

& 


u 

> 

CO 
0) 


o 
o 
X) 
o 
o 


r-) 

% 

M-l 
U 

0) 
4J 

s 


Scarlet pimpernel 
Anagallis arvensis 


FC 






FC 




















Ground hemlock 
Taxus canadensis 


F 


F 












F 












Witch hazel 
Hamamelis virginitma 


FC 






FC 




FC 
















Prickly ash 
Xanthoxylun anericanum 


FCC 




FC 


CC 


FC 


CC 


CC 














Mulberry 
Morus spp. 


FC 




FC 


FC 




FC 


FC 














Ash 

Fraxinus spp . 


F 












FC 




C 










Spirea 
Spirea spp. 


FCC 


FCC 


FCC 


CC 




CC 
















Juneberry 
Amelanchier spp. 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 






FC 














Privet 
Ligustrum spp. 


FC 


FC 


FC 






















Pear 
Pyrus spp. 


FFC 


FFC 


FFC 


FC 


FC 






FF 












Mountain ash 
Sorbus spp. 


FFC 


FFC 


FFC 


FC 


FC 






F 












Spindle tree, burning 

bush 

Euonymous spp. 


C 




C 


FC 




















Buttonbush 
Cephalanthus occidental 


Lis 






FC 


















c 


Pine 
Pinus spp. 


FC 


FC 


FC 


C 


C 






FCC 


FC 










Fir 

Picea spp. 


CC 


CC 




c 


FCC 


c 


C 


C 


FC 




F 







47 - 



SHRUB ROW PLA N TING CHART (Cont'd) 



Plant Species 


Cottontail 

Rabbits n 


Snowshoe 
Hare 


a 

c 

CO 
0) 

o 
u 

3 

w 


II 

Ring-necked 

Pheasant || 


Ruffed Grouse 


Hungarian 
Partridge 


•H 

CO 
3 
C 

cy 
u 

i 

x> 
o 


u 

0) 
G) 
Q 

-0 

Qi 
p-t 
•H 

CO 
4J 

I 

CU 
4J 


CO 

0) 

H 
n 

•H 
3 

cr 

CO 


CO 

u 

CO 

1 


Beaver 


o 
o 
o 
tj 




Be 


i-i 



cy 

S 


Balsan 

Abies balsaoea 


CC 


CC 




C 


FCC 


C 


C 


FC 


FC 




F 






Currant 
Ribes 


FC 


FC 












F 












Oleaster 
Elaeagnus spp. 


FCC 


FCC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 


FC 








FC 



MAST PLANTING CHART 



Plant Species 


f~j 




cy 

S 


cy 




CO 

3 
O 




Quail 


cy 
Q 

0) 














•H 






X 


H 


C cy 




•H 


CO 








r 5 ™* 




CO 


0) 


C 


o -u 


O 


CO to 


cy 


CO 


rH 






M 


F* 




■U CO 





CO 


cy c 




•H t3 


4J 


4J 


cy 


4J 




cy 


b 




C -w 


us 


cy 


C CO 


T3 


U -H 


•H 


1 


u 


CO 


U 


O 


<w 




O "H 


CO 


CL 


1 CO 


cy 


CO k 


43 


<y 


u 


U 


cy 


u 


u 




4J ,£5 


& cy 


o 


to CO 


M-i 


tO 4J 


& 


4J 


•H 


JX 


> 


T) 


cu 




■U 43 


O t-j 


u 


C cy 


cw 


C 5-( 


43 


•H 


3 


CO 


CO 


O 


•u 




O CO 


G JS 


3 


•H 43 


p 


3 CO 


O 


42 


cr 


3 


cy 


o 


co 




o p? 


M {ZJ 


w 


cd P< 


P4 


S P-i 


CQ 


ii> 


C/J 


tS 
&< 


F3 


£ 




Hazelnut 




























Corylus anericana 










F 




F 


F 


F 










Beaked hazel 




























C. cornuta 










F 




F 


F 


F 










Hickory 




























Carya spp. 
















F 


F 










Butternut 




























Jug Ian s cinerea 
















F 


FC 










Black walnut 




























J. nigra 
















F 


FC 










Beech 




























FaRus grandifolia 


F 














F 


EFCC 










Oak 


























Quercus spp. 


F 


F 




F 


F 




F 


F 


FFC 




F 







A ^ 



EMERGENT VEGETATION CHART 



Plant Species 


T ,-\ 

CO 

4J CO 
C 4J 
O «H 
•W & 

O CO 
U OS 


o 

TO 

£ c 
o t. 

CO 3 


G) 
U 

SB 

C 

CO 
0» 
Cu 

o 
u 

w 


o 

CJ 4J 

C CO 
1 TO 

to CO 
£ 0) 


0) 
TO 



•a 
m 

3 

ex! 


e a) 

co a 

J-l «H 
CO U 


4J 

■i 




a) 

0) 
Q 

0) 

«H 

CO 

4J 

t 

<U 
4J 
•H 

g 


0) 
> 
CO 

CO 
r-l 

<y 
u 
u 

•H 

3 

a 4 

CO 


CO 

TO 

1 


o 

o 

CJ 

o 

O 

IS 


rH 
& 


u 

0) 
4J 

CO 
E5 


Wildrice 
Zizania aquatica 
























F 


Cattail 
Typha spp. 




















FFCC 




C 


Bur reed 
Sparganiun spp. 




















FC 




F 


Arrow grass 
Triglochin naritina 
























FC 


Manna grass 
Glyceria spp. 




















C 




FC 


Leatherleaf 
Chanaedaphne calyculata 
























CC 


Reed 

Phragnites corxumis 


C 






n 






c 






C 




c 


Sweet gale 
Myrica gale 


c 






















c 


Labrador tea 
Ledun groelandicum 
























c 


Reed bent grass 
Calaoagrostis spp. 


C 


C 
















FFC 






Bladderwort 
Utricularia spp. 




















FC 






Spike rush 
Eleocharis spp. 
























c 


Water soar tweed 
Polygonum amphibiun 




















F 




FF 


Bulrush 
Scirpus spp. 




















FC 




FC 


Tuckahoe 

Peltandra virginica 
























FC 


Sedges 
Carex spp. 




















FC 




FCC 


Rushes 
Juncus spp. 




















FC 




FC 






- 49 - 
SUBMERGENT VEGETATION CHART 



Plant Species 


Cottontail 
Rabbits 


Snow shoe 
Hare 


European I-Iare 

11 


If 


0} 
CO 

3 
o 

k 

o 

Q) 
M-< 
CW 

3 


Hungarian 
Partridge 


r-l 
•H 

to 

3 

cy 
u 

•H 

| 

43 
O 
03 


White-tailed Deer 


CO 
rH 
Q) 
U 

u 

3 
CT 

C/3 


U 

0) 
> 

to 


4J 

to 

CO 

i 


o 
o 

o 

o 


!3 


U 

<u 

4J 

CO 


Hornwor t 
Ceratophyllum demers 






















F 




F 


Hornwor t 

C „ echinatum 






















F 




F 


Pond lily 
Nuphar spp . 


























F 


Musk grass 
Chara spp. 


























F 


Duckweed 
Leinna spp . 


























F 


Water flaxseed 
Spirodela polyrhiza 




























Sago pondweed 
Potamogeton pectinafcus 


























FF 


Pondweed 
P. natans 


























FF 


Pondweed 
Potamogeton spp. 


























F 


Eel grass 
Zostera marina 




























Arrowhead 
Sagittaria cristata 






















F 




F 


Duck potato 
S. latifolia 






















F 




F 


Waterweed 

Elodea canadensis 






















F 






Water milfoil 
Myriophyllum spp. 






















F 






Water smar tweed 
Polygonum amphibium 






















FF 




FF 


Pickerelweed 
Pontederia cordata 




























Wild celery 
Vallisneria am er lean 


























F 






"i i 

o 



rl 

Q) 
X! 

CD -W 

4J O 

•H 

CO T3 

g 

r=l 

g 

►J 

§ 



CO 

<u 

U 

<y 
& 
co 



X 



CO 

& 
o 1 

U 
CJ 

TJ 
0) 
■P 

•H 
4J 
r-l 

3 
O 



§ 

•H 

4J 

03 

CO 

§ 

> 



a 

•H 
O 



4J 
CO 

■u 

•H 

cd 

CO 

CO 



U 

O 
6C| 

CO 
fa 



- 50 - 



o 

o 

4J 
CO 

CD 
> 
•H 



O 

■u 

CO 

3 
o 
u 

CD 
(X) 

s 

•a 



o 
o 
•u 

* CO 
CO CD 
■u > 

CO »rl 
O t-1 
rl 

M-4 O 
4J 
O 
■M CO 

3 
>> o 

J-l 0) 

g to 

3 »C 



CO 



XXXXXXXX 



rl 

0) 

CO 



fa 



a 

CO 
CO 

B 

u 

a 

CO 

°rl 
r-» 

CD 
33 



t3 



o 

33 



5 

CO 
CO 
•H 
4J 

CO 
■u 

•H 
CO 

3 



3 
•H 



o 

a 

CO 

fa 



cu 

r-l 

u 

CD 

u 

CD 
r-l 

CO 

CJ 

cu 

CO 



CO 

u 

O 
fa 

CD 
U 
CO 



rl 

o 

CO 



X X 





•u 


•U 


j-j 


















CO 
CD 

.6 




CD 

1 


S* 




•U 




| 


s 




CO 


1 


1 


r-l 


CD 


X 


CD 
r-l 




£1 

CO 


43 

00 


CO 


■p 


CJ 


a 


Cj 


u 


(0 


r-< 


CD 


n 


rl 


CD 


8 


3 


3 


3 


CO 


r-l 


•H 


!»» 


o 


o 


•£ 


,0 


,a 


CO 


fi 


M-< 


P 


H 


CO 


CO 


& 



CO 

rl 

CD 

fa h4 



CD 
CO 

3 

CD 
34 

CD 
r-l 
CO 

43 



col 



X 



e 

o 

a 



CO 

to 



CO 
CD 
N 



- 51 - 



I 



X 



u 

T3 



O 
U 

CO ^ 
3 CJ 
O O 
U 4J 
Q> CO 
00 <D 

c > 

CO «H 
73 r-« 



I 

O 

* 

EC 

a. 



x x 



X X 



rS KS 





CO 




CO 




CO 




U 




60 


p- 




o 


43 


■P 


M 




3 


tj 


O 


0) 


H 


j-i 


CO 



0) 



X 



CO 
CO 

CO 

CO 
T3 

CJ 

o 



CO 
CO 

CO 
U 

CO 

u 

5 



CO 
CO 

CO 

u 

CO 

■3 
U 

CO 



CO 
43 



4J 

CJ 



CO 

§ 

a. 



CO 
CO 

CO 

u 

CO 
T3 



CO 

43 



X 



O 
M-l 
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4J 

o 
o 

CO 

•H 
43 



X 



CO 

r=) 

CO 

CO 



X 



CD 

% 

r-l 
CJ 

4J 

(1) 



X 



CO 

CO 

CO 

u 

CO 



CO 


>> 


CO 


n 


CO 


CO 


u 


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CO 


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£ 


M 



43 
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M 



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CO 

0) 

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CO 

a 
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0) 
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3 

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CO 

PL, 



CO 
43 

CO 

CO 

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CO 

o 

u 



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CO 
CO 

CD 
t-3 

CO 

I 

CJ 

a 



CO 

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CO 

4J 

CO 
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CJ 



CO 
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CO 

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3 
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CO 

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CO 
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CO 



CC 
3 
P. 



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CO 

3 
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CO 

tH 

3 
cj 
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PL) 



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CO 

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CO 
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2 - 







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1 CJ 








CO 


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CO 4J 


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c 


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3 


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^ 


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cj 


X\ 


n 


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c 


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CO 


TJ 


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o 


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o 

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to 


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g 

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en 
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HI 



a 

CO 

CO 
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- 53 - 



CO 
0) 
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CO 



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3 
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i°i 
to 

8 

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C/0 



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43 



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cj 

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3 




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44 




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3 




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o 


43 




cj 


s-i 


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CO 

cj 


>> 


CD 


3 




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c 


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Ps PS Ps Ps 



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CO 

cy 
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co 

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- 66 - 
REFERENCES 

Anonymous, 1950. Small Marsh Management for Fur Crops. N.Y. 
St. Cons. Bept., Inf. Bull. 8. 

Bailey s James, Conifer Plantations as Habitat for Ruffed Grouse 
and Other Wildlife, N.E. Wildl. Conf., 1958. Unpubl. 

Berg, P. F., 1956, A Study of Waterfowl Broods in Eastern 

Montana With Special Reference to Movements and the 
Relationship of Reservoir Fencing to Production. 
J. Wildl. Mgt. 20(3). 

Borell, A. E., 1962. Russian Olive for Wildlife and Other 

I Conservation Uses. U. S. Bept. Agric . , Leaflet No. 

517. 

Bowers, G. L., 1956. Recipe for Rabbits. Penn. Game News, 27(4). 

Christisen, B. M. & L. J. Korschgen, 1955. Acorn Yields and 
Wildlife Usage in Missouri. N.A. Wildl. Conf. 

Craighead, J. J., B. S. Stockstad, 1961. Evaluating to Use of 
Aerial Nesting Platforms by Canada Geese. J. Wildl. 
Mgt., 25(4). 

Edwards, R. H. , et al. Forestry and Wildlife Management-dual 
Endeavours on Forest Land. For. Chron. 32(4). 

Fernald, M.L., 1950. Grays Manual of Botany. Am. Book Co., 

New York. 

Fowle, C. D. & G. H. Temple, I960. Growth and Survival of 

Multiflora Rose Hedges in Southern Ontario. Ont. Bept. 
of Lands & Forests, Research Sect. Rept. No. 35. 

Grange, W. B., 1941 . Feeding Wildlife in Winter. U. S. Dept. 
Int., Cons. Bull. 13. 



Grange, W. 3., & W. L. McAtee, 1942, Improving the Farm Environment 

for Wildlife. U. S. Dept. Int., Cons. Bull. 12. 

Hammond, M. C, & G.E. Mann, 1956. Waterfowl Nesting Islands. 
J. Wildl. Mgt., 20(4), 

Hodgdon, K. W., &. J. H. Hunt, IS 53. Beaver Management in Maine. 
St. Maine, Bept. Inland Fish & Game, Bull. No. 3. 



- 67 - 

Hunt, G. S. &. R. W. Lutz, 1959. Seed Production by Curly-leaved 
Pondweed and Its Significance to Waterfowl. J. Wildl. 
Mgt. 23(4). 

Korschgen, L. J., 1962. Foods for Missouri Deer with Some 
Management Implications, J. Wildl. Mgt. 26(2). 

Krefting, L. W., et aj., 1956. Stimulating Regrowth of Mountain 
Maple for Deer Browse by Herbicides , Cutting and Fire. 
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Labisky, R. F., 1957. Relation by Hay Harvesting to Duck Nesting 
Under a Refuge-permittee System. J. Wildl. Mgt. 21(2). 

Lamoureux, W. J,, 1957. Aquatic Plants for Fish and Wildlife, 
Royal Bot. Card. 

Madson, John, 1959. The Cottontail Rabbit. Olin Mathieson 
Chem. Corp. 

Madson, John, 1961. The White- tailed Deer, Olin Mathieson 
Chem. Corp. 

Martin, A. C, et al, 1957. Improving Duck Marshes by Weed 
Control. U. S. Dept. Int., Circ. 19. 

Mathiak, H. A. & A. F. Linde, 1956. Studies on Level Ditching 

for Marsh Management. Wise. Cons. Dept. Tech. Wildl. 
Bull. No. 12. 

Mayall, K. M. , 195 7. Some Plants Suitable for Attracting Wildlife 
Metro. Tor. Cons. Auth. 

McAtee, W. L. , 1941, Plants Useful in Upland Wildlife Management. 
U. S. Dept. Int., Cons. Bull. No. 7. 

McDonough, J. J., & H. K. Maxfield, 1958. Results of Cottontail 

Rabbit Management in a Pole Stage Forest Type in Central 
Massachusetts. N. E. Wildl. Conf. 

Montgomery, F. H. et al, 1956, Plants Poisonous to Livestock in 
Ontario. Ont. Dept. Agric. Bull. 508. 

Ripley, C. V., 1957. Reclamation of Coal Strip-mined Lands With 
Reference to Wildlife Plantings. J. Wildl. Mgt. 21(4). 

Ripley, T. H. & R. A. Cookingham, 1958. Black Locust For Quail 
in Southeastern Massachusetts. N. E. Wildl. Conf. 



; " 



. ; i 



' '•'• 



.■'■ 



•• ' . 



- 68 - 

Smith, R. H.. Some Experimental Shrub Plantings, Twenty Years 
After. Unpubl. N. E. Wildl. Conf., 1962. 

Smith, R. L., 1958. Conifer Plantations Can Support Wildlife. 
N.E. Wildl. Conf. 

Spencer, H. E., Jr., 1962. Snail Impoundments Versus Natural 
Marshes for Waterfowl Production, N.E. Wildl. Conf. 

Spiegel, L. E. & G. J. Gleason, 1922. Ecology of Snowshoe Hare 

in Non-conifer Habitat on the Saginaw Glacial Lake Plain 
of Michigan. N. E. Wildl. Conf. 

Stanton, F. W., & H. C. Smith. Planting Food for Waterfowl. 
Oregon St. Game Corxi., Misc. Wildl. Publ., No. 1. 

Stanford, J. A., 1952. Whirring Wings, the Bobwhite Quail in 
Missouri. Mis. Cons. Comm. 

Stollberg, B. P., & R. L. Hine, 1952. Food Habitat Studies of 
Ruffed Grouse, Pheasant, Quail and Mink in Wisconsin. 
Wise. Cons. Dept. Tech. Wildl. Bull. No. 4. 

Swanson, C. V. & C. F. Yocom, 1958. Upland Game-bird Popula- 
tions in Relation to Cover and Agriculture in Southeastern 
Washington. N.E. Wildl. Conf. 

Tilt, C. R., 1950. Plantings for Wildlife Habitat Improvement. 
Ont. Dept. L. & F. Res. Rept. No. 17. 

Tilt, C. R., 1956. Wild Rice, Cnt. Dept. L. & F. Div. Res. 
Sect. Note No. 1. 

Trautman, C. G., 1952. Pheasant Food Habits in South Dakota 

and Their Economic Significance to Agriculture, S. Dakota 
Dept. Game, Fish, Parks, Tech. Bull. No. 1. 

Uhlig, Hans. G., 1956. The Gray Squirrel in West Virginia. 
Cons. Comm. W. Va., Bull. No. 3. 

Webb, W. L., 1960. Forest Wildlife Management in Germany, 
J. Wildl. Mgt., 24(2). 



. . <S1